Monday, May 13, 2019

Positive and Negative Effects of Colonialism

In my third year in junior school, just like my fellow Nigerian school mates, stereotypes made me believe that I had to be a science student to be considered a person who would most likely be successful in the future. A science student offers the core science subjects, therefore such a person would most likely be an engineer or medical doctor. Those two professions are also considered the only good ones in Nigeria. So, I had to tell myself that I would be a doctor. I mean that was what my father loved to hear.

Now, I had moved onto the next stage, first year in senior school as a science student. My new best friends became my physics, biology and chemistry textbooks. It was no longer a joke seeing as one's high school grades make up the most important part of your transcript for university admissions. Lo and behold, I found myself forcefully studying hard to get good grades in these subjects yet I had lost interest in the sciences. At this point, I asked myself several times if I actually wanted to study medicine or it was just the stereotypes serving as my decision maker.

The belief still holds in Nigeria that only those who take classes in art subjects can be lawyers. Being engaged in group conversations with my peers often time became discouraging because many of my friends laughed at my decision of becoming a lawyer. They made jest since I offered mainly science subjects in senior school. Yet, possessing grit, I refuse to falter in pursuing my dream of becoming a lawyer.

Another mentality I think Nigerians have is that if a child does not score a hundred percent in anything that they do, they automatically do not understand anything that they learn in school. But that should not be the case. Your intelligence should not be determined by only tests. To think of it, why then do we praise these so- called over intelligent people when we do not know if they actually scored a hundred percent in every test they took.

It is saddening that young people instead of being motivated are usually shouted at for not making perfect grades. Notwithstanding, every human has the same brain capacity so we all can get the amazing grades. Do not be distracted by people but instead focus on the most important things that you have to deal with now. Challenge yourself to do better than you could ever expect. Therefore, you need to work harder than you think.

I encourage people to never be discouraged in pursuing the career that they truly desire. An individual can be successful whether or not he/she is a science student or whether he/she had the best grades while in high school. Stereotypes we have in the Nigerian society should not affect what you want or what you would like to be in the future. Your drive should instead be moved by the passion you possess. Since childhood, I had this innocent wish to have the title of a doctor with my name. Little did I know that earning this title needs a lot of sacrifices. The first and the foremost sacrifice is giving up your youth. Looking at the Facebook profiles of your age fellows getting married, traveling, and doing stuff normal people do is always the difficult part but then again we, the Ph.D. scholars have our own definition of happiness which others may not understand. So, are you ready to dive deeper into the lives of Ph.D. scholars? Let's get going then.

Finding that Special One

It is believed that your adult life depends on that special person that enters in your life. Well, it is fully true for Ph.D.'s as well, except that for us that special person is our supervisor. When people of our age spend time praying to get their dream partner, we are praying to get a good supervisor. Yes, not only our Ph.D. but our life after this degree highly depends on the supervisor we get for our Ph.D. thesis. A good Ph.D. Supervisor is like a ray of sunlight at the end of the tunnel. He/she is the one who is there to keep you motivated even in the darkest of times. In short, they are the ones who commit to being there with you in health and in sickness for better and for worse. Ph.D. becomes easy once you find that right person who is made for you. Well, I found one.

Seeing that Special Person Happy

We all have that special person we want to see happy. Well, once again for Ph.D.'s that person is his/her supervisor. For us, seeing our supervisor happy is the ultimate goal we strive for. This is because we know that if they are happy with our work then it means we are going in the right direction. A smile on their faces and a few words of appreciation are all we need to keep going.

Facing the Rejections One after the Other

Yes, you have read it right, we feel proud when we receive rejection after completing the review process as going to the review process in a top-tier journal instead of getting desk rejected is itself a great achievement. It's not that we only want to be a part of the review process but the point is that the rejection rate of top-tier journals is so high that you feel happy on just the fact that your paper was at least not desk rejected.

Getting the Support of the People Who Matter to You

Oh no, right now I am not talking about the family or friends. For a Ph.D. scholar, getting the support of the thesis approval committee is what is the most important. We feel lucky when we are able to convince our research board that there is a strong rationale behind conducting the Ph.D. thesis which we have proposed. I will not exaggerate it but this process is more or less like a war of a Ph.D. scholar versus the research board.

Watching Others Struggling

I will be very honest here, most of us have mixed feelings on seeing other Ph.D. scholars being stuck in their research or living a single life or facing rejections from journals. It's not that we are selfish or jealous but seeing others facing the same issues make us feel relaxed that we are not the only people facing problems in Ph.D.

This is our life and these are a few little moments of happiness for us. The truth is only a Ph.D. scholar can understand this. So if you are a Ph.D. scholar then always remember that there comes ease after every hardship. Sometimes, you may feel that it is not worth it, that no one in the world understands the stress you are going throughout this degree but let me assure you, your family and friends may not understand this but they surely want to see you happy. If you have managed to earn this status then you can definitely reach your final destination as well. So be brave and keep working hard. Michel Foucault, (born October fifteen, 1926, Poitiers, France - died June twenty five, 1984, Paris), French philosopher as well as historian, one of probably the most important and debatable scholars of the post World War II period.

The son as well as grandson of a doctor, Michel Foucault was created to a solidly bourgeois household. He resisted what he regarded as the provincialism of the upbringing of his and the native country of his, and the career of his was marked by regular sojourns abroad. A notable but at times erratic pupil, Foucault received entry at the age of twenty to the École Normale Superieure (ENS) in Paris in 1946. There he studied philosophy and psychology, adopted and then abandoned communism, as well as established a good reputation as a sedulous, amazing, and eccentric pupil.

After graduating in 1952, Foucault started a career marked by continual movement, both professionally and intellectually. He taught at the Faculty of Lille, then wasted 5 years (1955 60) working as a cultural attache at Uppsala, Sweden; Warsaw, Poland; and Hamburg, West Germany (now Germany). Foucault defended the doctoral dissertation of his at the ENS in 1961. Circulated under the title Folie et deraison: histoire de la folie à l'âge classique ("Madness and Unreason: A History of Madness in the Classical Age"). It won critical praise but had a limited audience. (An abridged version was translated into English and published in 1965 as Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason.)

His other early monographs, written while he taught at the University of Clermont-Ferrand in France (1960-66), had much the same fate. Not until the look of Les Mots et les choses (Things" and "words; Eng. trans. The Order of Things) in 1966 did Foucault start attracting large notice as one of probably the most unique and debatable thinkers of his days. He decided to view his developing ideas from a distance - at the Faculty of Tunis in Tunisia (1966-68) - and was still in Tunis when student riots erupted in Paris of the spring of 1968.

In 1969 he published L'Archeologie du savoir (The Archaeology of Knowledge). In 1970, after a short tenure as director of the philosophy department at the Faculty of Paris, Vincennes, he was given a chair in the history of systems of thought at the Collège de France, France's most prestigious post secondary institution. The appointment granted Foucault the chance to conduct intense research.

Between 1971 as well as 1984 Foucault wrote a few works, like Surveiller et punir: naissance de la prison (1975; Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison), a monograph on the growth of the contemporary prison; 3 volumes of a record of Western sexuality; in addition to countless essays. Foucault continued traveling widely, and also as his status grew he spent lengthy periods in Brazil, Canada, Italy, Japan, and the United States.

He became especially connected to Berkeley, California, and the San Francisco Bay area and became a visiting lecturer at the Faculty of California at Berkeley for a few years. Foucault died of a septicemia typical of Aids in 1984, the fourth volume of the history of sexuality however incomplete. Elected in 1960 as the 35th president of the United States, 43-year-old John F. Kennedy became probably the youngest male and also the very first Roman Catholic to carry that office. He was born into one of America's wealthiest families and parlayed an elite training and a good reputation as a military hero and made a profitable run for Congress in 1946 and for the Senate in 1952. As president, Kennedy confronted mounting Cold War tensions in Cuba, Vietnam and anywhere else. Also, he led a renewed drive for public service and ultimately provided federal support for the increasing civil rights campaign. His assassination on November twenty two, Texas, in Dallas, 1963, sent shock waves all over the world and switched the all-too-human Kennedy into a larger-than-life heroic figure. To this particular day, historians remain to rank him among the best loved US presidents.

Born on May twenty nine, Massachusetts, in Brookline, 1917, John F. Kennedy (known as Jack) was the second of 9 kids. The parents of his, Joseph and Rose Kennedy, were members of 2 of Boston's most prominent Irish Catholic political families. Despite persistent health issues throughout the childhood of his and teenage years (he would afterwards be identified as having a rare endocrine disorder known as Addison's disease), Jack led a privileged youth, attending private classes like Choate and Canterbury and investing summers in Hyannis Port on Cape Cod. Joe Kennedy, a very effective businessman as well as an earlier supporter of Franklin D. Roosevelt, was appointed chairman of the Securities as well as Exchange Commission in 1934 and in 1937 was called U.S. ambassador to Great Britain. As a pupil at Harvard Faculty, Jack traveled in Europe as his father 's secretary. His senior thesis about British's unpreparedness for war was later posted as an acclaimed book, "Why England Slept" (1940).

The U.S Navy was joined by Jack in 1941 and 2 years later was delivered to the South Pacific, exactly where he was provided command of a Patrol Torpedo (PT) boat. In August 1943, a Japanese destroyer struck the craft, PT 109, in the Solomon Islands. Kennedy helped several of his marooned crew back again to safety, and was given the Navy as well as Marine Corps Medal for heroism. The older brother of his, Joe Jr., wasn't as fortunate: He was murdered in August 1944 when his Navy airplane skyrocketed on a secret objective against a German rocket launching site. A grieving Joe Sr. told Jack it had been the duty of his to fulfill the destiny at one time designed for Joe Jr.: to turn into the very first Catholic president of the United States.


Abandoning plans to be a journalist, Jack left the Navy by the conclusion of 1944. Less than a year later on, he was back in Boston planning for a run for Congress in 1946. As a reasonably conservative Democrat, and backed by his father 's fortune, Jack won his party 's nomination handily and carried the mainly working class Eleventh District by almost 3 to 1 over the Republican opponent of his in the common election. He entered the 80th Congress in January 1947, at the era of twenty nine, and quickly attracted interest (as well as some criticism from more mature members of the Washington establishment) for the youthful appearance of his and relaxed, casual style.

Reelection was won by Kennedy to the home of Representatives in 1948 as well as 1950, and also in 1952 ran successfully for the Senate, defeating the favorite Republican incumbent Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. On September twelve, 1953, Kennedy married the gorgeous socialite as well as journalist Jacqueline (Jackie) Lee Bouvier. 2 years down the line, he was pressured to go through a painful operation on the back of his. While recovering from the surgery, Jack published another best selling book, "Profiles in Courage," that received the Pulitzer Prize for biography in 1957. (The guide was eventually revealed to be mainly the job of Kennedy's longtime aide, Theodore Sorenson.)


After almost generating his party 's nomination for vice president (under Adlai Stevenson) in 1956, Kennedy announced the candidacy of his for president on January two, 1960. He defeated a main challenge from the much more liberal Hubert Humphrey and selected the Senate majority leader, Lyndon Johnson of Texas, as the running mate of his. In the common election, Kennedy faced a tough fight against the Republican opponent of his, Richard Nixon, a two term vice president under the famous Dwight D. Eisenhower. Offering a young, energetic way to Nixon as well as the status quo, Kennedy gained from the performance of his (and also telegenic appearance) in the first ever televised debates, viewed by large numbers of viewers. In November's election, Kennedy won by a narrow margin less than 120,000 out of several seventy million votes cast becoming the youngest male and also the very first Roman Catholic to be elected president of the United States.

With the beautiful young wife of his and their 2 children that are small (Caroline, born in 1957, and John Jr., born only weeks after the election), Kennedy lent an unmistakable aura of glamour and youth to the White House. In the inaugural address of his, provided on January twenty, 1961, the brand new president called on his fellow Americans to come together in the goal of improvement and also the elimination of poverty, but also in the fight to gain the continuous Cold War against communism within the globe. Kennedy's popular closing words shown the demand for sacrifice and cooperation on the component of the American folks: "Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country."


An earlier crisis in the foreign affairs area taken place in April 1961, when Kennedy approved the program to send 1,400 CIA trained Cuban exiles in an amphibious landing at the Bay of Pigs in Cuba. Meant to spur a rebellion which would overthrow the communist leader Fidel Castro, the mission finished in failure, with almost all of the exiles shot or even killed. That June, Kennedy greeted with Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev in Vienna to talk about the city of Berlin, which had been split after World War II between Allied and Soviet command. 2 weeks later, East German troops started erecting a wall to break down the city. Kennedy sent an army convoy to reassure West Berliners of U.S. assistance, and would send one of his most prominent speeches in West Berlin in June 1963.

Kennedy clashed once again with Khrushchev in October 1962 during the Cuban missile crisis. After learning that the Soviet Union was building a selection of long-range and nuclear missile sites in Cuba which could present a risk to the continental United States, Kennedy announced a naval blockade of Cuba. The tense standoff lasted close to 2 weeks before Khrushchev agreed to dismantle Soviet missile websites in Cuba in exchange for America's promise not to invade and of U.S. missiles from other sites and Turkey close to Soviet borders. In July 1963, Kennedy won his best overseas affairs victory when Khrushchev agreed to sign up for him and Britain's Prime Minister Harold Macmillan in signing a nuclear test ban treaty. In Southeast Asia, nonetheless, Kennedy's drive to change the spread of communism led him to escalate U.S. involvement in the conflict in Vietnam, even as privately he expressed the dismay of his over the circumstances.


During the first year of his in business, Kennedy oversaw the launch of the Peace Corps, that would transmit younger volunteers to underdeveloped countries around the globe. Or else, he was not able to attain a lot of his proposed legislation during the lifetime of his, including 2 of his greatest priorities: income tax cuts along with a civil rights bill. Kennedy was slow to dedicate himself to the civil rights cause, but was ultimately pushed into action, delivering federal troops to help support the desegregation of the citizens of Mississippi after riots there left 2 dead and a lot others injured. The next summer, Kennedy announced the intention of his to suggest a comprehensive civil rights bill and backed the significant March on Washington that took put that August.

Kennedy was an extremely popular president, each at home and abroad, and his family drew popular comparisons to King Arthur's court at Camelot. His brother Bobby served as the attorney general of his, while probably the youngest Kennedy son, Edward (Ted), was elected to Jack's former Senate seat in 1962. Jackie Kennedy became a worldwide icon of style, sophistication and beauty, although accounts of her husband's many marital infidelities (along with his private connection with members of organized crime) would afterwards come out to complicate the Kennedy's idyllic picture.


On November twenty two, 1963, the president as well as his wife landed in Dallas. From the airfield, the party then traveled in a motorcade to the Dallas Trade Mart, the site of Jack's up coming speaking engagement. Shortly after 12:30 p.m., as the motorcade was passing through downtown Dallas, shots rang out; Kennedy was struck twice, in the neck as well as head, and was pronounced dead shortly after arriving at a close by medical center.

Twenty-four-year-old Lee Harvey Oswald, known to have Communist sympathies, was arrested for the killing but was shot and fatally wounded 2 days later by regional nightclub owner Jack Ruby while being led to jail. Almost instantly, alternate theories of Kennedy's assassination emerged including conspiracies run by the KGB, the Mafia and also the U.S. military industrial complex, among others. A presidential commission led by Chief Justice Earl Warren concluded that Oswald had acted on his own, though debate and speculation over the assassination has persisted.

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